Family Icteridae

Family Icteridae
Oropendolas, caciques, orioles and blackbirds make up the family Icteridae. They are small to medium-sized birds that have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. The family is extremely varied in size, shape, behavior and coloration. The majority of icterid species live in the tropics, although there are a number of temperate forms. One unusual morphological adaptation shared by the icterids is gaping, where the skull is configured to allow them open their bills strongly rather than passively, allowing them to force open gaps to obtain otherwise hidden food. Icterids have adapted to taking a wide range of foods. Oropendolas and caciques use their
 gaping motion to open the skins of fruit to obtain the soft insides, and have long bills adapted to the process. Others such as cowbirds and the bobolink have shorter stubbier bills for crushing seeds. The nesting habits of these birds are similarly variable, including pendulous woven nests in the oropendolas and orioles. Many icterids nest in colonies. Some cowbird species engage in brood parasitism: females lay their eggs in the nests of other species, in a similar fashion to some cuckoos. There are 16 genera and 35 species within the family Icteridae known to occur in Peru. Photo: Peruvian Meadowlark ©Javier Colmenares.
Family ICTERIDAE
New World Blackbirds Oropendolas, Tordos, Caciques
Russet-backed Oropendola Oropéndola de Dorso Bermejo Psarocolius angustifrons
Dusky-green Oropendola Oropéndola Verde Oscuro Psarocolius atrovirens
Green Oropendola Oropéndola Verde Psarocolius viridis
Crested Oropendola Oropéndola Crestada Psarocolius decumanus
Olive Oropendola Oropéndola Olivácea Psarocolius bifasciatus
Casqued Oropendola Oropéndola de Casquete Clypicterus oseryi
Band-tailed Oropendola Oropéndola de Cola Bandeada Ocyalus latirostris
Mountain Cacique Cacique Montañes Cacicus chrysonotus
Ecuadorian Cacique Cacique Ecuatoriano Cacicus sclateri
Selva Cacique Cacique de Koepcke Cacicus koepckeae (E)
Solitary Black Cacique Cacique Solitario Cacicus solitarius
Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacique de Lomo Amarillo Cacicus cela
Red-rumped Cacique Cacique de Lomo Rojo Cacicus haemorrhous
Scarlet-rumped Cacique Cacique de Lomo Escarlata Cacicus uropygialis
Yellow-billed Cacique Cacique de Pico Amarillo Amblycercus holosericeus
Orange-backed Troupial Turpial de Dorso Naranja Icterus croconotus
White-edged Oriole Bolsero de Filos Blancos Icterus graceannae
Yellow-tailed Oriole Bolsero de Cola Amarilla Icterus mesomelas
Epaulet Oriole Bolsero de Hombro Pintado Icterus cayanensis
Moriche Oriole Bolsero Moriche Icterus chrysocephalus
Scrub Blackbird Tordo de Matorral Dives warszewiczi
Oriole Blackbird Tordo Oriol Gymnomystax mexicanus
Velvet-fronted Grackle Clarinero de Frente Aterciopelada Lampropsar tanagrinus
Chopi Blackbird Tordo Chopí Gnorimopsar chopi
Pale-eyed Blackbird Tordo de Ojo Pálido Agelasticus xanthophthalmus
Unicolored Blackbird Tordo Unicolor Agelasticus cyanopus (V)
Yellow-winged Blackbird Tordo de Ala Amarilla Agelasticus thilius
Yellow-hooded Blackbird Tordo de Capucha Amarilla Chrysomus icterocephalus
Giant Cowbird Tordo Gigante Molothrus oryzivorus
Shiny Cowbird Tordo Brilloso Molothrus bonariensis
Great-tailed Grackle Clarinero de Cola Grande Quiscalus mexicanus
Red-breasted Blackbird Pecho Colorado Grande Sturnella militaris
White-browed Blackbird Pecho Colorado de Ceja Blanca Sturnella superciliaris (NB)
Peruvian Meadowlark Pecho Colorado Peruano Sturnella bellicosa
Bobolink Tordo Arrocero Dolichonyx oryzivorus (NB)
peru aves - birdsPARULIDAE: Warblers – Reinitas  FRINGILLIDAE: Siskins & Euphonias – Jilgueros, Eufoniasperu aves